There are two kinds of games in life: finite and infinitive games. A finite game is played to win, while an infinite game is played to keep the game going.
Finite games, such as football, basketball, tennis, golf, poker, chess, debates or even the very war, have specific boundaries. They have a clear beginning, a playing field and a certain number of known players. In addition to these restrictions, finite games are dictated by a set of rules that are pre-established and mutually agreed upon by the players. Once the fixed rules are established, the objective is to win, Actually, the end point of the game is when someone wins, so the winners and losers are easily identified. When there’s a winner, the game is over. It is zero sum.
Infinite games, on the other hand, are the opposite pole to finite games. Where a finite game is played for the purpose of winning, an infinite game is played for the purpose of continuing the play. Infinite games are not bound by any restriction. Anyone can participate in the game, anytime, anywhere. An infinite game can keep going only by allowing players come and go, and by changing the rules over time. To maintain perpetual adaptations, mutations and possibilities, the infinite game must play with its own boundaries, players and rules. Therefore, there are no winners or losers in an infinite game; there is only ahead and behind.
Consider, for example, music. There will never be no such thing as ‘the best worldwide artist of all time’, because there will always be new songwriters creating new amazing music. No artist makes art to win or be the best. Actually, artistic creations are like open invitations for more people to join the game.
Therefore, life itself is essentially an infinite game. When everyday we play the game of life, we explore new ways to live life to the fullest, we take into account all possibilities, we expand what is meant by playing, and if possible, we try improbable plays to overcome everything that has come before.
Likewise, business is an infinite game where anyone can participate, companies come and go, rules are malleable and shifting, and there are no clear winners and losers. As technologic innovation change the rules continuously, most companies are proficient in the best practices of previous versions of the game, but ignore how to master the new possibilities that fresh ideas and technological breakthroughs bring to the playing arena. Established companies may recognize some of their contestants from a past game with outdated rules, but is becoming impossible to envision the future number and variety of all players. Not to mention their strategy or sources of distinctiveness.
However, the more I started to understand the difference between finite and infinite games, the more I began to realize that many of the struggles and disruptions that companies face exist simply because they are still playing the game of business with a finite mindset. Finite players strive for competition and domination, while infinite players strive to coexist through creation. Finite players aim to win in order to gain control over others. They flaunt their titles and exhibit their power and superiority. They are in the business to compete, conquer, disrupt and crush their competitors.
The greatest organisations of our time play an infinite game, and Amazon is a great example of this. When Amazon first launched its website, in July 1995, founder Jeff Bezos’s goal was to use the internet to sell books at low prices, but it is no longer just an online retailer. Amazon has shaped, scaled and dominated its own infinite game anchored in the beginning in the online store but seamlessly complemented with other experiential concepts such as Amazon Prime, Amazon Kindle, Alexa & Amazon Echo, Amazon Dash Buttons, Amazon Go, Amazon Studios or Amazon Services. Jeff Bezos’s firm connects numerous products and services in form of ‘singular experiences’ that improve hugely the way millions of people life and work, that eventually become part of their daily habits.
What game is Amazon playing? Nothing but its own infinite billion-dollar game where ‘it’s always day one at Amazon’. In the words of Jeff Bezos, “If we can keep our competitors focused on us while we stay focused on the customer, ultimately we’ll turn out all right”. Amazon’s success in shaping, scaling and dominating its own infinite game around consumer experience is undeniable: Since its inception, Amazon has grown at a staggering pace, with almost a 60,000 percent increase in its stock price.
You can choose what kind of game you want to play, and what kind of player you want to be. So which game are you playing?